We investigated whether there is a correlation between MBL2 polymorphisms and the host susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cancer development. Toward this end, we analyzed MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms in 172 women infected by strains of HPV that are associated with high-risk of cervical cancer development (or "high-risk" HPV infection), 105 of whom had HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC), as well as 105 women not infected by HPV. We demonstrated an association of MBL2 polymorphisms with high-risk HPV infection in women without SCC who showed increased presence of the mutant MBL2 0 allele and 0/0 genotype as compared with women with SCC and healthy controls. No correlation with MBL2 polymorphisms was found in women who developed cancer. Therefore we propose that MBL2 polymorphisms responsible for defective production of mannose binding lectin (MBL) protein play a role in the increased susceptibility to high-risk HPV infection but not to cervical cancer onset and development.