Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are used in polishing products and absorbents, as promoters in wound healing, and as organopesticide decontaminants. While systemic bioaccumulation and organ toxicity has been described after inhalation, data on CeO2 NPs’ transdermal permeation are lacking. Our study was an in vitro investigation of the permeation of 17-nm CeO2 NPs dispersed in synthetic sweat (1 g L−1) using excised human skin on Franz cells. Experiments were performed using intact and needle-abraded skin, separately. The average amount of Ce into intact and damaged skin samples was 3.64 ± 0.15 and 7.07 ± 0.78 µg cm−2, respectively (mean ± SD, p = 0.04). Ce concentration in the receiving solution was 2.0 ± 0.4 and 3.3 ± 0.7 ng cm−2 after 24 h (p = 0.008). The Ce content was higher in dermal layers of damaged skin compared to intact skin (2.93 ± 0.71 µg cm−2 and 0.39 ± 0.16 µg cm−2, respectively; p = 0.004). Our data showed a very low dermal absorption and transdermal permeation of cerium, providing a first indication of Ce skin uptake due to contact with CeO2.