We present the Data Release 12 Quasar catalog (DR12Q) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the SDSS-III. This catalog includes all SDSS-III/BOSS objects that were spectroscopically targeted as quasar candidates during the full survey and that are confirmed as quasars via visual inspection of the spectra, have luminosities Mi[z=2]<-20.5 (in a LCDM cosmology with H_0 = 70 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, and Omega _L=0.7), and either display at least one emission line with a full width at half maximum (FWHM)larger than 500 km/s or, if not, have interesting/complex absorption features. The catalog also includes previously known quasars (mostly from SDSS-I and II) that were reobserved by BOSS. The catalog contains 297,301 quasars detected over 9,376 square degrees with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra. The number of quasars with z>2.15 is about an order of magnitude greater than the number of z>2.15 quasars known prior to BOSS. Redshifts and FWHMs are provided for the strongest emission lines (CIV, CIII], MgII). The catalog identifies 29,580 broad absorption line quasars and lists their characteristics. For each object, the catalog presents five-band (u, g, r, i, z) CCD-based photometry together with some information on the optical morphology and the selection criteria. When available, the catalog also provides information on the optical variability of quasars using SDSS and PTF multi-epoch photometry. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra, covering the wavelength region 3,600-10,500A at a spectral resolution in the range 1,300<R<2,500, can be retrieved from the SDSS Catalog Archive Server.