APMIS. ACTA PATHOLOGICA, MICROBIOLOGICA ET IMMUNOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA
Bacterial resistance is a growing phenomenon which led the scientific community to search for new therapeutic targets, such as biofilm. A bacterial biofilm is a surface-associated agglomerate of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix made of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Scientific literature offers several reports on a biofilm's role in infections regarding various body districts. The presence of a bacterial biofilm is responsible for poor efficacy of antibiotic therapies along with bacterial infections in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) districts such as the oral cavity, ear, nasal cavities, and nasal sinuses. In particular, bacterial biofilms are associated with recalcitrant and symptomatically more severe forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. As of today, there are no therapeutic options for the eradication of bacterial biofilm in ENT districts. Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide units. Its efficacy in treating rhinosinusitis, whether or not associated with polyposis, is well documented, as well as results from its effects on mucociliary clearance, free radical production and mucosal repair. This review's aim is to evaluate the role of bacterial biofilms and the action exerted on it by hyaluronic acid in ENT pathology, with particular attention to the rhinosinusal district. In conclusion, this paper underlines how the efficacy of hyaluronate as an anti-bacterial biofilm agent is well demonstrated by in vitro studies; it is, however, only preliminarily demonstrated by clinical studies.