This article focuses on Bruschi’s interpretation of Althusserian theory, developed in Le matérialisme politique de L. Althusser. The first part of the article focuses on Bruschi’s analyses of aleatory materialism. Bruschi argues that Althusser’s latest writings embody a reformulation of historical materialism and a new representation of the “transition”. I question whether this rewriting does not rather imply a dissolution of the “transition” problem. The second part focuses on Bruschi’s reading of the Althusserian representation of the revolutionary process. Without conflicting with his key assumption of the deep continuity of Althusser’s path, I argue that the principle of the “autonomous action of masses” represents a turning point in the shaping of the link between theory and praxis.