Obesity is the result of energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. Classical treatments against obesity do not provide a satisfactory long-term outcome for the majority of
patients. After the demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in human adults, great effort is being devoted to develop therapies based on the adipose tissue itself, through the conversion of fat
accumulating white adipose tissue into energy-dissipating brown adipose tissue. Anti-obesity treatments that exploit endogenous, pharmacological and nutritional factors to drive such
conversion are especially in demand. In the present review we summarize the current knowledge about the various molecules that can be applied in promoting white to brown adipose tissue
conversion and energy expenditure and the cellular mechanisms involved.